Understanding the vocabularies

In the Ido-English vocabulary, the division of Ido words into their elements is shown by a full sto (US: period). This is just for the benefit of users and is not the way in which the words are normally written. Where there might be doubt as to whether a verb is transitive or intransitive an indication is given. Some verbs (for example, movar) are both transitive and intransitive, meaning that they may be used in either way. For some intransitive verbs (which cannot take a direct object) the preposition normally used after the verb has been given where this is likely to be helpful.

In view of the ambiguity of many English words, in both vocabularies every effort has been made to indicate in parentheses which meaning is intended. However, where several English words are given as equivalents of an Ido word, they must be understood as together showing the meaning of any one of them which on its own would be ambiguous. Different meanings of a word are separated with a semi-colon, while synonyms and near-synonyms are separated with a comma. US usage is indicated by (US).

Abbreviations include:
adj. = adjective; adv. = adverb; conj. = conjunction; fig. = figurative(ly); intr. = intransitive; n. = noun; prep. = preposition; pron. = pronoun; tr. = transitive; tr./intr. = transitive or intransitive; v. = verb.



a (= ad) (prep.) to
-ab- (verbal suffix: see grammar) to abandon, forsake to subscribe to (a periodical, etc.)
absent.a absent
absolut.a absolute, unrestricted to absorb; (fig.) engross
absurd.a absurd, preposterous to light (a lamp, a fire), set alight; (fig.) inflame (passion) (tr./intr.) to go up, ascend, mount to accept; receive (a guest)
-ach- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
acident.o accident (good or bad; also philos.); mishap
ad (= a) (prep.) to
-ad- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
ad.en into to add, join (something to something else) to hail, call (to) (tr.) to adapt (tr.) to add (numbers)
adjektiv.o adjective to administer, manage to admire to admit (let in) to adopt (opinion, belief, child); agree upon
adres.o address (on letter etc)
adult.a adult
adverb.o adverb
aer.o air
aeroplan.o aeroplane, (US) airplane
afabl.a affable, amiable
afer.o affair, matter; business
Afrik.a Africa
-ag- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) (tr./intr.) to do, act to acknowledge, admit
agost.o August
agr.o field, piece of ground
agreabl.a agreeable, pleasant
-aj- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to accompany (also mus.), escort
aktiv.a active
aktor.o actor, actress
aktual.a existing now, current, actual
akut.a sharp, acute (also fig. of sound, pain, sickness, accent) to accuse
al (= a la) to the
-al- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
al.o wing (also fig. of aeroplane, army, building, windmill, etc.)
alberg.o inn
alfabet.o alphabet
alonge alongside, along
alt.a high (dimension, sound or pressure), tall
alternativ.o alternative
altr.a other, another
altr.u another person to love, like very much
am.o love
Amerik.a America (the continent)
amas.o mass, pile, heap
amator.o amateur
amb.a both
ambigu.a ambiguous
amik.o friend to amuse, entertain
an (prep.) at, on (indicates contiguity, juxtaposition)
-an- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
ancien.a old (opposite of new)
angl.a English
Angli.a England
angul.o angle, corner
animal.o animal
anke, ank (adv.) also
ankore, ankor (adv.) still, yet
ankor.foy.e again
anorak.o anorak
ante (prep.) before (of time), earlier than
ante.a former, previous to anticipate
antiqu.a antique, ancient, of a former epoch to announce to appear
aparat.o apparatus
apart.a apart, separate
apartament.o apartment, flat to belong
apene, apen (adv.) hardly, scarcely (tr.) to open to crush, squash; (fig.) oppress to applaud to apply (also fig.), lay on (tr.) to support, prop (up); base (one thing on another)
april.o April (tr.) to approve of
apt.a apt, suitable
apud (prep.) next to, beside
apud.a adjacent (tr.) to aim at (with a camera, gun etc.)
aqu.o water to acquire, get
-ar- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
arab.a Arabic
Arabi.a Arabia to arrange
arbor.o tree; axletree, shaft (revolving rod)
arbust.o shrub, small bush
ardu.a rugged; arduous, hard
are.o area, extent of surface (intr.) to argue (a case, using reason)
-ari- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to arrive
arjent.o silver
arm.o weapon, arm
armor.o cupboard
art.o art
artikl.o article (newspaper, etc; grammar) to assert (make an assertion, state as a fact) (tr.) to attend (be present at) (tr.) to listen to to look (like), appear (have an appearance) to astonish, amaze to attack to pay attention to, heed to attain, reach
-atr- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to attract, draw to hear (tr.) to dare, be so bold as (tr./intr.) to increase, augment
Australi.a Australia
Austri.a Austria
autobus.o bus (vehicle)
automobil.o car, motor-car, automobile
autor.o author; (fig.) creator
autun.o autumn, (US) fall (season)
av.o grandparent
avan (prep.) in front of, ahead of, before (in space) (tr./intr.) to advance (in space or time)
avantaj.o advantage
avar.a miserly, avaricious
aventur.o adventure (tr.) to give notice to or apprise (of a future event or possibility), warn
Azi.a Asia


bagaj.o luggage, baggage (tr.) to bake
bald.e (adv.) soon (tr.) to bathe
balon.o ball (hollow, air-filled); balloon
bank.o bank (financial) to bar, stop up (a way, a route)
barb.o beard
bas.a low (dimension, sound or pressure)
basen.o basin (pan; catchment area of river; geol.)
baston.o stick, staff; cudgel; cue; pole to beat, strike repeatedly (intr.) to battle
batel.o boat
bateri.o battery (elec.; milit.)
bay.o bay (of sea)
baz.o base (lowest part); (fig.) basis, foundation
bel.a fine, beautiful, handsome
belg.a Belgian
Belgi.a Belgium
bend.o strip, stripe, band
benign.a kind, benign; mild (of medicines, diseases)
benk.o bench (long seat)
ber.o berry
beton.o concrete (building material) to need
bibliotek.o library (establishment); book-case
bicikl.o bicycle
biliet.o ticket, pass, written order
bir.o beer
bisquit.o biscuit, (US) cookie
bitr.a bitter (lit. & fig.) to blame
blank.a white; (fig.) blank
blind.a blind
blok.o block, lump
blu.a blue
bok.o mouth; opening, entrance (volcano, harbour, etc)
bol.o bowl (intr.) to boil
bon.a good to welcome
bonbon.o sweet (confection)
bord.o border, edge, brink, brim
bosk.o (a) wood (trees)
botel.o bottle
bov.o bull (bovulo) or cow (bovino)
braki.o arm (anat.; fig.)
branch.o branch (also geom., geneal.)
brav.a brave
brik.o brick (intr.) to shine
Britani.a (Great) Britain to brush (intr.) to make a noise (tr./intr.) to burn (also fig.)
brun.a brown
bul.o ball
burs.o purse; wallet, (US) pocket book
butik.o shop, store
buton.o button
butr.o butter
bux.o box


ca (=ica) this (adj.) (tr.) to cede, yield, give up (tr.) to hide, conceal, secrete to celebrate, commemorate
cent hundred
centr.o centre, (US) center (also fig.)
cert.a certain, sure
certen.a a certain, a particular (tr./intr.) to cease
chambr.o room, chamber; house (of parliament)
chanc.o chance, (good or bad) luck, likelihood (tr./intr.) to change
chapel.o hat (with a brim)
chapitr.o chapter (of a book) to charm, delight to chase; hunt
che (prep.) at, in, to (someone in his or her house, home or place), with (a people, in respect of their customs)
chef.a chief, leading
chef.o leader, chief, head
chek.o cheque, (US) check (financial)
cher.a costly, dear, expensive
Chini.a China
chip.a cheap, inexpensive
ci these (pron.)
ciel.o sky; heaven
cienc.o science
cirkl.o circle to surround
cirkonstanc.o circumstance
cirkum (prep.) about, around
co (= ico) this (thing)


da (prep.) by (indicates the doer of an action)
dal (= da la) by the (indicating doer)
damzel.o miss, maid (unmarried woman)
dan.a Danish
Dani.a Denmark
danjer.o danger, peril, jeopardy to thank (tr./intr.) to dance to be permitted, may
dat.o date (calendar)
de (prep.) from (indicating starting point, origin or derivation); of (where an amount is indicated; e.g. 'peco de pano', 'glaso de aquo')
de.pos (prep.) since
de.o God, (a) god to owe (something to someone), be under obligation
decembr.o December (tr./intr.) to descend, go down, move down to disappoint to decide, settle
defekt.o defect, flaw to defend to defy, challenge, dare to define, state the meaning of to (have) lunch
dek ten
del (= de la) from the (tr.) to ask for
demand.o request to resign (from a position, office or job) to demolish (tr.) to demonstrate (show by reason; make evident)
dens.a dense, crowded; thick (of a liquid)
dent.o tooth (also fig.) (de) to depart (intr.) (de; di) to depend (be influenced or determined; rely on for support) to derive (gram., math., etc)
des- (pref.) (see list of prefixes) to disappear
des.facil.a difficult to discover, uncover to draw (sketch) to describe to destroy
detal.o detail to determine, ascertain definitely, settle conclusively to be obliged, have a duty ought, should, must (as an obligation)
dev.o obligation, duty (tr.) to develop
dextr.a right (opposite of left)
dezert.a deserted, desert
dezert.o desert, wilderness to desire
di (prep.) of (indicates possession or association)
di.o day (of 24 hours) to say, tell to differ (tr.) to disperse, spread, diffuse
dik.a thick
dil (= di la) of the (tr./intr.) to lessen, decrease, diminish
din.a thin (lean)
direcion.o direction (two-way), bearing (both ways) to direct, manage, conduct
diret.a direct (opposite of indirect)
diret.e directly, straight (adv.)
dis- (prep.) (see list of prefixes) to squander, waste, dissipate to discuss (tr.) to scatter, disperse (intr.) to quarrel, have a dispute to be at a distance
dist.o distance to distract, divert attention of; (fig.) amuse to apportion, distribute, dispense
distrikt.o district (area of jurisdiction) to become, get (intr.) to diverge
divers.a various, sundry, diverse (tr.) to divide to guess to teach (something)
dolc.a sweet, pleasant (intr.) to feel pain, hurt
dom.o house (dwelling; building for a specific purpose) to damage, harm, impair, spoil to give (general sense) to give (as a gift), donate
dop (prep.) behind to sleep
dors.o back (of body, hand etc) to drink
drol.a funny, humorous (tr.) to drown
du two
du.esm.a second (adj.) half (n.)
du.opl.a double (adj.) (intr.) to doubt to lead
dum (prep.) during
dum ke (konj.) while, whilst
dum.e (adv.) meanwhile, meantime to last, continue, endure to thirst


e (= ed) and
-e- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
-ebl- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to leave out, except, exclude to exceed, be excessive to excite, arouse
ed (= e) and
-ed- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to publish (print and sell) to educate, bring up (people); rear, raise (animals, plants) to erase, efface (also fig.)
efekt.o effect to be effectual
efik.iv.a effective, efficacious
-eg- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
egal.a equal equality to pay regard to, take into account
Egipti.a Egypt
ek (prep.) out of (from), out from
el (= elu) (pron.) she, her
elastik.a elastic, springy to elect (someone by vote)
elektr.o electricity to elevate, raise and set up
elu (pron.) she, her
elu.a her (possessive), hers
-em- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to emphasize, stress to employ (someone)
en (prep.) in to enter to bury, inter
-end- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
enemik.o enemy, foe
energi.o energy to engage, hire (someone), enlist (someone, milit.)
enigmat.o puzzle, enigma to enthuse (intr.), be enthusiastic
entuziasm.o enthusiasm to envy, be envious of
-er- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
-eri- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) (tr.) to erode to err, be mistaken
es (= am, is, are
-es- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to be to strive, endeavour, (US) endeavor
-esk- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
eskaler.o staircase, stairs (tr./intr.) to escape (from), evade (someone or something)
eskarp.a steep (of slopes)
eskombr.o rubbish, refuse
-esm- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) (tr./intr.) to hope (for)
est.o east to esteem, hold in high regard
-et- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
etaj.o storey, floor (of a building); tier
Europ.a Europe (tr./intr.) to be (some length of time) old, be aged (some length of time)
ev.o age to happen, occur, come about
evident.a obvious, evident to avoid, evade, shun, obviate to exaggerate
exakt.a accurate, exact (faithful to the facts), faithful (of a copy) to examine (test someone)
exempl.o example
exempler.o copy (of a book, newspaper, etc) to exist to excavate to exclude, debar to excuse (seek pardon for) su to apologise to expect to experience
expert.a expert (adj.) to explain to investigate, examine, explore, reconnoitre, (US) reconnoiter (intr.) to explode to express (an idea, thought, feeling etc) (tr.) to extend, stretch, spread
exter (prep.) outside, (US) outside of; besides foreign, external (abroad) (tr./intr.) to extinguish, put out, quench (also fig.)
extrem.a extreme, utmost
-ey- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)


fab.o bean to manufacture to make (an object); do (an act)
facil.a easy (to do)
fair.o fire (also fig.)
fak.o (anything portioned off) compartment, branch, department, speciality, stall (in a stable)
fakt.o fact
faktur.o invoice, bill to fall, fall down (tr.) to fold (tr./intr.) to fail, miss (an aim); (com.) become insolvent
fals.a false, spurious
fam.o fame
famili.o family (also bot., zool.), kin
familiar.a familiar
fang.o mud, mire
farb.o paint
farin.o flour (tr.) to tire, fatigue, weary to favour
febl.a weak, feeble, feint
februar.o February
felic.a happy (of a person)
femin.a female, feminine
fenc.o fence (tr.) to split, slit
fenestr.o window
fer.o iron
ferm.a firm, steady (also fig.)
feroc.a ferocious (intr.) (ad ulu od ulo) to trust, have faith, have confidence
fidel.a faithful, true, trusty
fier.a proud
fil.o thread; yarn; (metal-fil.o) wire
fili.o child (son or daughter) daughter
fili.ul.o son (tr./intr.) to end, finish
fingr.o finger; (ped-fingr.o) toe
firm.o firm (commercial)
fish.o fish (intr.) to fit; suit (as to shape or size)
fix.a fixed (of a star, look, idea, etc)
flak.o puddle, small pool
flam.o flame
flank.o side (as distinct from front or back), breast (of ship), flank (of army) to scent, smell (an odour, an object)
flav.a yellow to nurse, care for (a child, a sick person) (tr./intr.) to bend, bow
flor.o flower, bloom (intr.) to float to flow (intr.) to fly
fluid.a fluid to move to and fro, fluctuate, waver (also fig.)
fluvi.o (large) river (flowing into the sea)
fol.a crazy, mad; (fig.) foolish
foli.o leaf (plant or book), sheet (paper etc)
for (prep.) away from, far from
for.a remote, distant
for.e (far) away
forc.o force (mechanical)
forest.o forest
fork.o pitchfork or similar fork (also fig.) (table) fork
form.o shape, form, conformation, (fig.) mode, appearance to shape, form
formik.o ant
forn.o oven; kiln
forsan (adv.) perhaps, maybe
fort.a strong (also fig.)
fortun.o good luck, good fortune
fortun.oz.a lucky, fortunate
fos.o pit, hole (in the ground) to photograph
foy.o time (in counting), occasion (in repetition), turn
frajil.a fragile
franc.a French
Franci.a France to strike, hit, knock, slap
frat.o brother or sister, sibling sister
frat.ul.o brother to defraud, cheat
fraz.o sentence (gram.), phrase (mus.)
fren.o brake
fresh.a fresh (tr.) to fry
frivol.a (of a person) frivolous; (of a thing) trifling, pointless
fromaj.o cheese
front.o forehead; (fig.) front (intr.) to freeze (tr.) to rub
fru.a early (adj.)
frukt.o fruit (also fig.) (tr./intr.) to smoke to function (all senses), act (as)
fund.o bottom, lowest part (of something hollow, of a vase, of a well, of a sea); (fig.) background
fundament.o foundation, that on which anything rests, (fig.) basis to be enraged or furious to furnish, provide or supply (something to someone) to steal, thieve (tr.) to botch, bungle
futbal.o football (game)
futur.a future
futur.o future (also the tense) (tr.) to melt


gamb.o leg to gain, earn, win to guard (persons); tend (animals)
garden.o garden
gas.o gas
gast.o guest
gay.a merry, gay, cheerful general (adj.), generic
genitor.o parent
genu.o knee
german.a German
Germani.a Germany
glaci.o ice
glas.o (drinking) glass, tumbler
glat.a smooth, sleek to glide, slide, slip to swallow, gulp down (also fig.) (tr./intr.) to stick, paste, glue (together)
grad.o step (of stairs); rank, grade; degree (temperature etc); degree (academic); size (of shoes etc)
grand.a big, large, great
gras.o fat, grease to scrape (against), scratch (lightly) (ulu pri ulo) to be grateful to
gratitud.oza grateful
gratuit.a free (of cost), gratuitous to congratulate
grav.a heavy; (fig.) weighty, momentous, grave; (accent) grave
grek.a Greek
Greki.a Greece
griz.a grey, (US) gray
gros.a bulky, fat, gross, thick
grup.o group; clump (of trees); flock (of sheep) to guide (tr.) to taste (something)
gut.o drop (of liquid) to govern (child, ship, in politics, grammar, machinery, etc), rule directly


ha! ha!, ah!
habil.a clever, skilful, adroit to inhabit, live in (permanently)
hal.o very large room, hall (intr.) to halt, stop (in travel or movement)
har.o (a single) hair (of a person's head) hair (collectively, on a person's head)
hard.a hard (not soft) (intr.) to hurry, hasten to have (something)
hazard.o chance occurrence, (hap)hazard to help, assist, aid
hem.o home
herb.o herbaceous plant, herb (bot.); (fig.) grass to hesitate, falter
hier.e yesterday
hik.e here
hispan.a Spanish
Hispani.a Spain
histori.o history
ho.di.e today, this day
hobi.o hobby
hok.o hook
hom.o human, man (human being)
honest.a honest
honor.o honour, (US) honor
hor.o hour
horloj.o clock, timepiece
hospital.o hospital
hotel.o hotel
humid.a humid, damp, moist
humil.a humble, meek
humor.o temper, mood, humour, (US) humor (state of mind)
humur.o humour, (US) humor (appreciation of the comic or ludicrous)
hund.o dog
Hungari.a Hungary to be hungry (also fig.)


ibe (adv.) there
ica (= ca) this (adj.)
ici (= ci) these (pron.), these things
ico (= co) this (pron.), this thing
-id- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
ide.o idea
-ig- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to make, cause, render to ignore, disregard, refuse to acknowledge
il (= ilu) he, him
-il- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
ilu he, him
ilu.a his
-im- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to imagine
imaj.o picture, image, visual representation to imitate to impede, hamper, hinder to order (e.g. that something be done), command to matter, be important to print (a book, paper, etc)
-in- (suf.) (see list of suffixes) to incite, urge on
-ind- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
Indi.a India to lack, be in want of to indicate, point out, denote
indolent.a lazy, indolent, slothful
industri.o industry to coat (with paint, plaster etc), paint (a wall etc)
infant.o infant (child under 7 years of age) to influence to inform
infr.a lowest, bottom (of different levels)
infr.e (adv.) at the bottom or lowest part
injenior.o engineer (tr./intr.) to incline (phys., mental), lean; be disposed to include, enclose, inclose
insekt.o insect to insert to insist, be insistent to inspect, examine, oversee
instant.o instant, moment (of time) to teach (someone), instruct
instrument.o instrument
insul.o island, isle to insult
inteligent.a intelligent to intend, have in view
intenc.o intent, intention
intens.a intense
inter (prep.) between; among
inter.nacion.a international to prohibit, forbid to interest
intern.a internal, inner, interior, inside to introduce (someone or something) (tr.) to flood, overflow to invent to invite
ips.a selfsame, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves (used for emphasis immediately after a pronoun) to go (be on one's way) (kontre) to be angry
irg.a any (whatever)
irg.o anything (whatever)
irg.u anyone at all
irg.ube wherever
irga.lok.e anywhere
irge.kande whenever, no matter when
Irland.o Ireland
-ism- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
-ist- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
ita (= ta) that, those (adj.)
Itali.a Italy to do again, repeat (an action), iterate
iti (= ti) those (pron.), those ones
ito (= to) that (pron.), that thing
-iv- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)
-iz- (suf.) (see list of suffixes)


ja already to lie (on something)
jaluz.a jealous
januar.o January
Japoni.a Japan
jar.o jar (container) to discomfort, incommode, inconvenience
jeneroz.a generous to throw to joke, jest, banter
jorn.o daytime, day (opposite of night)
jovdi.o Thursday to be joyful, be glad
joy.o joy to enjoy to judge (general, not legal sense), deem
juli.o July
juni.o June (tr.) to join (place one thing in contact with another)
jup.o skirt; kilt
jurnal.o newspaper, gazette, journal
jus (adv.) just, just now (e.g. il jus arivis = he's just arrived)
just.a right, proper, correct (of measure, time, word, thought etc)
juvel.o jewel


ka, kad whether, if; (also used at the beginning of a sentence to turn it into a question)
kafe.o coffee (substance or drink) to calculate
kalm.a calm (of objects; fig. of persons), still, placid
kalz.o stocking
kam (adv.) than, as, to (in comparison) to exchange (money, goods), barter
kamer.o camera
kamion.o lorry, dray, (US) truck
kamiz.o shirt; chemise
Kanad.a Canada
kande, kand when
kanson.o (a) song to sing
kap.o head (anat. & fig.)
kapabl.a capable, able to capture, catch
kar.a dear (showing affection)
karakter.o character (distinctive quality)
karn.o flesh; meat
karot.o carrot (plant & root)
karton.o cardboard
kat.o cat
katen.o chain (pr. & fig.)
kaud.o tail (also fig.)
kaul.o cabbage
kauz.o cause (of an event)
kav.a hollow, sunken
kaval.o horse; (in chess) knight to ride (as on a horse)
kaz.o case (all senses: jur., gram., med. & general, except casing)
ke (konj.) that (see also: dum ke, pro ke, etc)
kelk.a some (of), a few (of), a little (of)
kin five
kirk.o church (building) to kiss (tr.) to shout, exclaim
klar.a clear (to sight or hearing), (fig.) plain, evident
klas.o class (all senses)
klef.o key (for a lock; also fig.) to tighten, clench (e.g., screw, knot, brake, joint, hand) to climb (up)
klok.o (of time) o'clock, hour on the clock
klosh.o bell (also anything bell-shaped)
klov.o nail (metal) (tr.) to shut, close
klub.o club (social) to compel, force, coerce (kun) to coincide (in form or in time)
kol.o neck (anat. & fig.)
kold.a cold (pr. & fig.) (tr.) to collect, gather together (tr.) to pluck (fruits, flowers, etc)
kolin.o hill
kolor.o colour, (US) color
kom (prep.) as (being), in the capacity of (e.g. 'la arboro komencis kom semino' = the tree began as a seed)
kom.o comma (in text) (tr./intr.) to fight (tr.) to combine (tr./intr.) to begin, start, commence to order (goods, etc) (tr.) to comment on (intr.) to trade, deal
komerc.o trade, commerce
komfort.o comfort
komik.a comic, ludicrous
komod.o chest of drawers, commode (of drawers)
kompan.o companion
kompani.o company (business, military) (tr.) to compare (tr./intr.) to pity, commiserate (with), be compassionate
kompat.o pity, compassion, mercy
komplet.a complete to complicate to put together, compound (make by combining parts), compose (not in printing) to buy, purchase to understand to squeeze, compress
komun.a common (pertaining to several), joint (tr./intr.) to communicate, impart; be connected by passage to relate or belong to, concern (relate to)
koncern.o concern, affair
koncienc.o conscience to behave (in some manner), conduct oneself
kondut.o behaviour, conduct to connect (one thing with another, mechanically or electrically) (... kun; ad) to confuse (things in one's mind), muddle (in one's mind)
konjuncion.o conjunction (gram., astr.) (intr.) to agree, be in agreement, be concordant to know (be acquainted with) to agree (to something or with someone), consent to consider, think carefully about to advise, counsel (ek, ye) to consist, be composed (of) to constitute, form to build, construct to consult (someone or something) to consume, use up, wear out, expend (tr.) to count (add up) (kun) to be in touch, have contact to contain, hold
kontent.a contented, satisfied
kontinu.a continuous
kontor.o bureau, office
kontre (prep.) against, contrary to, versus to check, verify (intr/imp) (intr.) to suit, be fitting; (also impers.) be appropriate to converse to convince to copy, make a copy of (tr.) to cook
kord.o line, string, cord, rope; (geom.) chord
kordi.o heart (also fig.)
Kore.a Korea
korekt.a correct, right to correspond (relate or conform in character; communicate by letter)
korp.o body (entire physical being; main part)
kostum.o costume, dress, garb
koton.o cotton to cover
koz.o thing
krayon.o pencil, crayon to create to believe (someone, something) (intr.) to grow (intr.) to scream, cry out
kruc.o cross
krud.a raw, uncooked; crude, unworked (also fig.)
kruel.a cruel
kuk.o cake
kul.o bottom (of an object)
kulier.o spoon to be at fault, commit a fault, fail in one's duty
kultel.o knife to cultivate (soil, plants, the mind, the arts, etc), till
kun (prep.) with (in company with)
kun.e together to meet, come together to run to treat (medically) ? to be courageous
kurt.a short, brief
kurv.a curved, bent
kusen.o cushion, pillow (tr.) to lay down to rest, put to bed su to lie down to rest, go to bed (tr.) to cost, be bought for (tr.) to be accustomed to, be used to
kustum.o custom, habit
kuz.o cousin


la the (tr./intr.) to work (intr.), work (earth, iron, wood, etc) (tr.) to tear, rip; lacerate
lag.o lake
lakrim.o tear
lakt.o milk
lamp.o lamp
lan.o wool
land.o a country, a land
lang.o tongue (anat. & tech.)
larj.a broad, wide to let, allow; leave (behind)
last.a last (in time or space)
later.o side (geom., archit.) to praise, laud
laut.a loud (voice or sound) (tr.) to wash; launder
lecion.o lesson, lecture
led.a ugly
ledr.o leather
leg.o law (natural, moral, social, legislative)
legum.o vegetable
lejer.a light (in weight or force); (fig.) not severe to read
lent.a slow to learn
letr.o letter (correspondence) to lift (up), raise
li they, them
li.a their, theirs
liber.a free (from restraint), at liberty
libr.o book to tie, fasten, bind
lign.o wood (the material)
limit.o limit, bound(s)
line.o line (geom., writing, genealogy, etc)
lingu.o language
liquid.a liquid
list.o list
lit.o bed (for sleeping; also fig. of a river etc)
liter.o letter (of the alphabet) (tr.) to leave, depart from (a place or person), quit to deliver (goods, etc) (intr.) to lodge, live (at a stated place)
lok.o place, locality, spot to hire, rent
long.a long (of time or space), tall
lor (prep.) at the time of (an event), at the same time as
lor.e then, at that time
lu he, she, it (common gender form)
lu.a his, her, hers, its (intr.) (per) to play (in a game or sport) to let, rent (out), hire (out) (intr.) (kontre) to wrestle; (fig.) struggle, strive (intr.) to shine, give light (also fig.)
lum.o light
lun.o moon
lundi.o Monday


ma but
mal.a bad; evil
malad.a sick, ill, unwell
maleol.o ankle
malgre (prep.) despite, in spite of, notwithstanding
malgre ke although, even though
manier.o manner, way of behaving or of doing anything to eat, (fig.) consume (intr.) to be lacking, be missing
manu.o hand
map.o map
mar.o sea (intr.) to walk, step, tread; march
mardi.o Tuesday (tr.) to unite in wedlock, marry (others)
mark.o mark, token, stamp
mart.o March
mas.o mass (body of matter)
mashin.o machine, engine
maskul.a male, masculine
materi.o material, matter, stuff (also fig.)
matin.o morning, forenoon
matr.o mother
matur.a mature, ripe
maxim (adv.) most (preceding an adjective or adverb)
may.o May
me I, me
me.a my, mine
medicin.o medicine (science, profession)
medik.o physician, doctor (of medicine)
medikament.o medicine (for an illness)
mem (adv.) even, still (e.g. 'mem hundi natas' = even dogs swim)
membr.o member (of a club, society, etc); limb (arm or leg) (tr.) to remember, recollect to mention
ment.o mind (n.) to lie (tell an untruth)
menton.o chin to deserve, merit
merkat.o market (public place for selling; also fig.)
merkurdi.o Wednesday
mesaj.o message
mestier.o trade, craft, occupation (manual)
metal.o metal
metod.o method
metr.o metre (measure; poetic)
mez.a middle (adj.), median
mez.o middle (n.), midst to measure; (land) survey
mi- (pref.) semi-, hemi-, demi-
mikr.a small, little
mil thousand
mili.o mile
milion.o million (intr.) (por, kontre) to make war, (fig.) militate
milit.o war
min (adv.) less (preceding an adjective or adverb)
minim (adv.) least (preceding an adjective or adverb)
minus (prep.) minus
minut.o minute (of time or angle)
mis- (pref.) mis- (see list of prefixes) (tr.) to mix, blend; shuffle (cards)
mobl.o piece of furniture
modern.a modern
modest.a modest (not pretentious or ostentatious; not presumptuous)
mol.a soft, yielding easily to pressure; tender, mellow
monat.o month
mond.o world
monet.o coin, cash, change
mont.o mountain, mount (tr.) to show to bite (also fig.)
morg.e tomorrow to die (also fig., e.g. of fire, of a movement)
motiv.o motive, reason; motif
motor.o motor (tr./intr.) to move, set in motion, propel
moyen.o means (through which something is done)
mulier.o woman
mult.a many, much
mur.o wall to have to (from necessity) must (from need)
muton.o sheep (intr.) to play music
muzik.o music


nacion.o nation
naiv.a naive
nam (konj.) for, since (conj.), seeing that to narrate, tell (something that happened)
narac.o narrative, story, account (intr.) to be born to swim
natur.o nature (all senses)
nav.o ship; nave (of a church)
naz.o nose
ne (adv.) not
ne- (pref.) non- (see list of prefixes)
nebul.o fog
neces.a necessary
Nederland.o Netherlands to neglect
nek ... nek neither ... nor
net.a clean, spotless; (of price) net, nett
ni we, us
ni.a our, ours
nigr.a black
nilon.o nylon (imp.) to snow
no no (opposite of yes) (tr.) to harm, injure
nod.o knot (in string, etc; unit of speed)
nokt.o night
nom.o name
nombr.o number (indicating quantity; gram.)
non nine
nord.o north
norm.o norm
Norvegi.a Norway to note down, set down in writing
nov.a new
Nov-Zeland.o New Zealand
novembr.o November
nuanc.o nuance (of tone, meaning, colour etc)
nub.o cloud
nul.a no (adj.), not any
nul.o nothing
nul.temp.e never
nul.u no-one, nobody
numer.o number (indicating order or succession (not quantity); e.g. the number of a house or room)
nun (adv.) now
nur (adv) only (adv.)
nur.a sole to nourish, feed
nutr.iv.o nourishment, food


o (= od) (konj.) or
o ... o (= od ... od) (konj.) either ... or (tr.) to obey (tr.) to object to, adduce as an objection to or reason against
objekt.o object (tangible or visible; focus of thought or feelings) to forget to observe, watch carefully
obskur.a obscure (all senses)
obstakl.o obstacle, hindrance, impediment (also fig.) to obtain, get to slay, kill with violence
od (= o) (konj.) or
od ... od (= o ... o) (konj.) either ... or (intr.) to smell (have a smell or scent)
odor.o smell, scent, odour, (US) odor
ofic.o office (position, function), post, duty official
oficir.o officer (military, naval; of an order) to offer, proffer
oft.a repeated, frequent
oft.e often
ok eight
okazion.o occasion, opportunity
oktobr.o October
okul.o eye to occupy
ol (= olu) (pron.) it
old.a old (opposite of young)
ole.o oil
oli (pron.) they (those things)
olu (pron.) it
olu.a its
ombr.o shadow, shade to omit
omn.a all, every (collective sense)
omn.i all, everybody (collectively)
omn.o everything
omn.u everyone
on (= onu) (pron.) one (someone), they (as used loosely)
ond.o wave, swell (of water, also fig.)
onkl.o uncle or aunt aunt
onkl.ul.o uncle
onu (pron.) one (someone)
onu.a one's
onyon.o onion to opine, hold an opinion
opinion.o opinion to put (someone or something) in opposition, set opposite
or.o gold to put in order, arrange (in proper order)
ordinar.a ordinary, common
orel.o ear
ost.o bone
ov.o egg
-oz- (suf.) -ful, -ous (see list of suffixes)


pac.o peace
pacient.a patient (adj.) to shoot (with a firearm) (ulu ye ulo, ulo ad ulu) to pay (someone or something), pay for (something; also fig.)
pagin.o page (of a book etc)
pak.o bundle, package, parcel packet
pal.a pale, pallid to feel (by touch), feel about
pan.o bread
pantalon.o (long) trousers, (US) pants
paper.o paper
par.o pair, couple to forgive, pardon (s-o. or s-t.)
park.o park (n.) (intr.) (pri) to speak, talk
part.o part, portion; part (in games, music etc)
partikular.a particular, special, peculiar, specific (tr./intr.) to pass (one's life, time etc), pass (through, above, etc.)
pasabl.a passable, fair, middling, mediocre
patr.o father to pause (tr./intr.) to be (instinctively or emotionally) afraid (of) to step, stride
paz.o step, pace
pec.o piece; lump (e.g. of sugar)
ped.o foot (anat. & fig.); paw; foot (of verse)
pekuni.o money, cash
pel.o skin; hide (on the body) (tr./intr.) to hang (up, down), dangle (tr./intr.) to think
per (prep.) by means of, by, with (some means); (arith.) multiplied by to lose (something), lose out
perfekt.a perfect
period.o period to be permanent, exist indefinitely
perman.ant.a permanent to permit, allow
person.o person (also gram.) to persuade to fish, angle
petr.o stone (material) (intr.) to weigh (have a certain weight) to paint (pictures)
pikt.ur.o painting, (painted) picture
plac.o square (in a town), place, piazza
plad.o plate (dish to eat off)
plafon.o ceiling
plaj.o beach
plan.a flat, level, plane
plank.o plank, board
plant.o plant (bot.) to plant (seeds etc in the ground)
plas.o place (for a person or thing), space for one
plat.a (having an) even or flat (surface); (fig.) dull, flat to play (a musical instrument, role in a play, etc)
plen.a full to complain; (jur.) lodge a complaint (tr./intr.) to please, be pleasing
plezur.o pleasure to cry, weep
plu (adv.) more (before an adj. or adv.)
plum.o feather, plume; pen (for writing), quill (intr.) to dive, plunge
plur.a several
plus further(more), in addition; plus (arith.)
plus.a additional, extra (imp.) to rain
po (prep.) for, at the price of, in exchange for; per
pok.a few, little
polic.o maintenance of public order and security, policing
polit.a polite, civil (in manner)
polon.a Polish
Poloni.a Poland
polv.o dust, powder
pom.o apple
pont.o bridge; culvert; gangplank, gangway (nav.)
popul.o people (of a town, country etc), population
popular.a popular
por (prep.) for, on behalf of
pord.o door; gate; doorway
pork.o pig to carry, bear, take, bring (of person, vehicle, wind, water etc); wear (clothes, watch etc)
portu.o port (sea or air), harbour, (US) harbor
Portugal Portugal
pos (prep.) after (in time)
pos.di.mez.o afternoon to possess
posh.o pocket
posibl.a possible
post.o postal service, post, mail to demand, require, exact (something from someone)
pot.o pot, jug, pan (for holding something or for cooking) to be able (to do something) can (v.)
povr.a poor, needy to place, put, set, lay down (lit. & fig.) to practise, (US) practice, put in practice, exercise; observe (a rule etc)
prec.o price, charge (lit. & fig.)
precipu.a main, principal
preciz.a precise (not used of a person), exact, strictly defined or determined (e.g., preciza nombro) to prefer (like better) (tr.) to pray; beg (s-o. for s-t.), beseech to take, take hold of to prepare to press
preske (adv.) almost, nearly to lend (s-t. to s-o.), loan (tr.) to claim (lay claim to)
preter (prep.) past, beyond to prevent
prezent.a present (here or now)
pri (prep.) about, concerning, re
printemp.o spring(time)
privat.a private (adj.) to appreciate, prize, value to present, set or place before
pro (prep.) because of, owing to, out of, on account of
pro ke (konj.) because
pro quo why to try out, attempt, test (something); assay
probabl.a likely, probable
problem.o problem to produce, bring forth
profesion.o profession (occupational) (tr.) to profit from, benefit from
profit.o profit, benefit
profund.a deep, profound; (fig.) abstruse (tr.) to plan, form a project of to (go for a) walk, stroll to promise (something (to someone); to do something)
pront.a ready, prepared
proporcion.o proportion, ratio to propose (offer for consideration); propound; move (a resolution)
propr.a own, proper, belonging (to) to own to protect to provide (s-o. with s-t.), supply
proxim (prep.) near (to), close to (in time or space)
prudent.a prudent, cautious to borrow to prove (truth or validity)
publik.a public
puer.o child (over 7 years of age) girl
puer.ul.o boy to push, thrust, impel; beat (e.g., heart), throb, pulsate to punish
punt.o point (geom., typo., games); full stop, (US) period (punctuation)
pur.a pure


qua (pron.) who, what, which (refers to a definite person or thing, sing., interrog. & rel.)
quadrat.a square (geom., arith.)
qual.a what sort of, what kind of, what a, like
qual.e how, as
quankam (konj.) although, though
quant.a how much, how many (adj.)
quar four to fetch to question (s-o.)
qui who, which (plural, interrog. & rel.)
quik (adv.) immediately. at once
quo what, which (sing.; interrog. & rel.; used as an interrog. refers to something indefinite, e.g. 'quo eventis?' = what happened?)

R (tr.) to tell (a tale, a story)
rakont.o tale, story
rang.o row, tier, range; rank
rapid.a fast, quick, rapid
rar.a rare, unusual, infrequent
rar.e seldom, rarely
real.a real, actual
recent.a recent to receive
red.a red to edit (a newspaper, journal etc) (tr./intr.) to reflect (phys., mental, gram.) to refuse, decline to regard (look at attentively)
region.o region (all senses)
registr.o register, record book; account book to regret, be sorry about to regulate (tech. & fig.) (tr.) to advertise to recommend, commend
rekt.a straight (not curved or crooked) (tr.) to relate to; be connected to (by business etc) (tr.) to notice to replace (take or be in the place of) to meet, encounter to mend, repair, restore (intr.) to have a meal, eat (a meal)
repast.o meal (tr.) to tell or say again, repeat (something said) to rest (take a rest), repose to restrain, hold back, check, suppress, repress to crawl, creep (also fig.) to respect (tr./intr.) to breathe, respire (tr./intr.) to reply, answer, respond to remain, stay to keep (back), retain, withhold; (arith.) carry
retro (adv.) backwards, back
retro- (pref.) re- (indicating return; see list of prefixes) to day-dream
revenu.o revenue; income to reside, dwell, live to resist, stand firm against, not yield to, withstand (de) to result, be the consequence
rich.a rich (lit. & fig.) to laugh to smile
rigid.a rigid, stiff, inflexible (lit. & fig.) (tr.) to risk, hazard, venture
riv.o shore, coast (by a sea); bank (of a river)
river.o river, (large) stream
riz.o rice
robinet.o tap, cock, (US) faucet, spigot
rok.o (a) rock, boulder
rol.o role, rôle (theat. & gen.), part, character
rond.a round (adj.)
rot.o wheel
rud.a rough (of things, persons, manners), uncouth, rude (lacking refinement) (tr./intr.) to roll, roll along; roll (of a ship) (tr./intr.) to break, snap, rupture
rur.o country (as opposed to town)
rus.a Russian
Rusi.a Russia


sabl.o sand
saj.a wise, sensible
sak.o sack, bag, pouch (also anat. & bot.)
salad.o salad to pay salary or wages to
salari.o salary, wage(s)
salon.o drawing room, parlour, (US) parlor (intr.) to leap, jump, bound to greet, salute
salut.o greeting, salute to save (from danger etc), rescue; salvage
sam.a same
san.a healthy, well; (fig.) sound
sandwich.o sandwich
sang.o blood (intr.) to taste (have a certain taste)
sapor.o flavour, (US) flavor, taste to fulfil or satisfy (a duty, expectation, promise); discharge (an obligation)
saturdi.o Saturday to know (by learning), have a knowledge of, know how (to do s-t.)
se (konj.) if
sed.o bottom (of the body), backside
segun (prep.) according to to make a cut in, cut partially through; section (divide into sections)
sekret.a secret
sekund.o second (of time or angle)
sekur.a safe, secure to choose, select to sow (lit. & fig.), scatter seeds
seman.o week (intr.) to seem, appear (to be)
sempr.e (adv.) always
sen (prep.) without
senc.o sense, meaning to send, cause to go to feel (a sensation)
sentiment.o sentiment, mental feeling, emotional attitude
sep seven (tr.) to separate, part
septembr.o September to follow (lit. & fig.) to seek, look for, search for
seri.o series, row, file, queue
serioz.a serious, grave (not frivolous, not trivial)
serur.o lock (for fastening) (tr./intr.) to serve, be of service to
sever.a severe, stern, harsh, strict
sezon.o season (of the year)
sfer.o sphere (intr.) to be ashamed
sham.o shame (the emotion) to strike against; shock (mentally)
shok.o shock (physical or mental), impact
shu.o shoe
shultr.o shoulder to sit (be sitting); (fig.) lie, reside (of things)
sign.o sign (natural or artificial), mark (indication) to mean, signify
sik.a dry (adj.)
silk.o silk
simil.a similar, like, alike
simpl.a simple, uncomplicated, not complex; plain, unadorned
sincer.a sincere
singl.a each
singl.u each one (person), each (pron.)
sinistr.a left (adj.), left-hand, (nav.) port (tr./intr.) to sink, settle, subside
sior.o sir (or madam) Mrs, Miss, madam, lady (woman)
sior.ul.o Mr, sir, gentleman (man)
sis six to site, place, locate, seat to seize, grab; (fig.) grasp (e.g. an opportunity)
skol.o school (educational establishment; group of disciples)
skop.o aim, objective, purpose, goal, target
skot.a Scottish
Skoti.a Scotland to scrape (off), abrade to write, write out
soci.o society (in general), community (people in a locality) society (club)
sol.a alone
soldat.o soldier
solid.a solid (not liquid; geom.); (fig.) firm, sound to solve (a problem etc); loosen (of a solute)
somer.o summer
somit.o summit (highest point) (intr.) to sound (emit a sound), strike (of a clock) to dream (while asleep)
sordid.a dirty, sordid, soiled; (fig.) nasty, foul to take care of, look after
sort.o sort, kind
sovaj.a wild, savage (untamed); (fig.) fierce
spac.o space
spec.o species; (fig.) kind
spegul.o mirror to spend, expend (money, effort etc)
splendid.a splendid, magnificent to rob, plunder, loot, despoil, pillage
sport.o sport
spoz.o spouse wife
spoz.ul.o husband (intr.) to stand (upright)
stacion.o station (place, building)
stal.o steel to be (well, ill etc; e.g., quale vu standas? = how are you?)
stand.o state (of being), condition
stat.o state (political)
stel.o star (all senses) (tr.) to stipulate
stof.o fabric, cloth, stuff
ston.o pebble, small stone
strad.o street
stranj.a strange, odd
stranjer.a foreign, not native; (fig.) extraneous
strek.o dash (written), stroke; (geom.) straight line
stret.a narrow
student.o student, undergraduate (tr./intr.) to study (s-t., about s-t.)
stul.o chair (seat with a back)
stult.a foolish, silly
stult.o fool
sturm.o storm (with thunder & lightning)
su (reflex. pron., 3rd person, sing. or plur.) herself, himself, itself, oneself, themselves
su.a her own, his own, its own, one's own, their own
sub (prep.) under, beneath, below
subit.a sudden
subjekt.o subject (gram., log.)
substantiv.o noun to succeed (be successful) (tr.) to be concerned or anxious about, care about
sud.o south
sued.a Swedish
Suedi.a Sweden to suffice, be sufficient (tr./intr.) to blow, blow upon; prompt (theatre); huff (draughts, checkers) (tr./intr.) (de, pro) to suffer (from), be afflicted (with) to suck to suggest, intimate
suis.a Swiss
Suisi.a Switzerland
suk.o juice
sukr.o sugar
sul.o soil
sun.o sun
sundi.o Sunday
sup.o soup
super (prep.) over, above (also fig.) to support (lit., fig.), bear the weight of to suppose, assume (take for granted)
supr.a top (highest up in space or degree)
supr.e on top, on high, aloft; (fig.) upstairs
sur (prep.) on, upon, on top of; (arith.) divided by
surfac.o surface, outside; (fig.) appearance to surprise, take unawares
surtut.o overcoat, greatcoat to suspect, distrust


ta (= ita) that, those (adj.)
tabl.o table (furniture)
tal.a such (of that kind), such like
tal.e so, in such a manner, thus
tam ... kam as ... as (e.g., tam granda kam)
tamen (konj.) however, nevertheless
tant.a so much, so many
tant.e so (followed by an adjective or adverb)
tard.a late, tardy
tas.o cup
task.o task, job
te.o tea (leaves; infusion) to bore; (fig.) weary
tekt.o roof; top (of car or carriage)
tem.o topic, subject, theme
temp.o time (duration); tense (of a verb); tempo (mus.) to hold
tenebr.o (the) dark, darkness, gloom (tr.) to strain (draw taut), stretch, tense (also fig.); cock (a gun); wind up (a clock) to tempt, entice
ter.o earth; Earth
ter.pom.o potato (intr.) to be terrified, be (badly) frightened
teror.o terror, fright
text.o text
ti (= iti) those (pron.), those ones
til (prep.) until, till (in time); to, up to, as far as (in space) to fear (for a reason), be apprehensive
tip.o type (print., med., nat. hist.); conceptual model having traits characteristic of a group to pull, draw, tug; draw (of chimneys)
titul.o title (of a book, article, person, etc)
to (= ito) that (pron.), that thing to tolerate, put up with, endure
tomat.o tomato (imp/intr) to thunder (also fig.)
tondr.o thunder to twist, wring, contort; sprain; warp (wood)
tot.a whole, entire
tra (prep.) through (de ... ad) to translate (from one language to another) to betray to deal with, behave toward, treat, handle (a person or subject) to cut through, cut off; carve, cut up
tranquil.a still, tranquil, quiet (physically or mentally)
trans (prep.) on the other side of, beyond, across to transport, convey
tre (adv.) very (pro, de) to tremble, shake, shiver; flutter (of wings); quaver (music); flicker (light)
tren.o train (railway)
tri three
trist.a sad, doleful (of persons or things)
tro (adv.) too (followed by an adjective or adverb) to deceive to find, come across
tru.o hole to disturb, trouble
trup.o band (company of people having a common purpose), troup; herd, flock
tu thou, you (familiar form of 'you', like French 'tu', German 'du')
tu.a thy, thine, your (see 'tu')
tub.o tube, pipe
tuk.o (piece of) cloth
tur.o tour
turb.o crowd, throng
turk.a Turkish
Turki.a Turkey (tr./intr.) to turn (around an axis), turn around to touch (physically)


ube (adv.) where
ucel.o bird
ul.a any, some (indeterminite)
ul.a.lok.e somewhere
ul.o something
ul.u anyone, someone
ultr.e (prep.) besides
un one (1)
un.esm.a first
un.foy.e one time, once (tr.) to unite (join together in purpose)
urb.o town, (US) city to be urgent American (of the USA)
Us.a USA
utensil.o tool, implement, utensil
util.a useful to use, employ (make use of)


vagon.o railway carriage, car (railway) to have (or, be on) a holiday or (US) vacation
vaku.a empty, void, vacuous
val.o valley, vale, dale
valid.a valid (tr.) to be worth, be equal in value to
van.a futile, fruitless, vain
vanitat.o vanity (conceit)
vapor.o steam, vapour, (US) vapor
var.o ware, commodity; (vari) goods (tr./intr.) to vary, change (in amount or intensity)
varm.a warm (also fig.) (tr.) to pour (out); spill; shed (blood, etc) to await, wait for
vast.a vast, extensive to go or travel in a vehicle (ride, sail, drive or fly) (intr.) to wake, awaken (emerge from sleep) (tr.) to rouse, wake to come to sell
venen.o poison, venom (also fig.)
venerdi.o Friday
vent.o wind
ver.a true (not false)
verb.o verb
verd.a green
verk.o work (literary, artistic etc)
vers (prep.) toward(s), in the direction of
vesper.o evening
vest.o garment, item of clothing
veston.o jacket (man's)
veter.o weather
vetur.o vehicle (wheeled) to annoy, irritate, vex
vi you (plural)
vi.a your(s) (plural)
vice (prep.) instead of
vicin.a neighbouring, (US) neighboring
vicin.o neighbour, (US) neighbor to see
vilaj.o village to conquer, defeat, overcome (an enemy, competitor or obstacle), win
vintr.o winter (tr.) to use violence on
violent.o violence; force (in law)
vir.o man (male adult person)
vitr.o glass (the material) (tr./intr.) to live, be alive
viv.o life (tr./intr.) to aim at (a target, etc); take aim
vizaj.o face (of a person), visage to visit
voc.o voice (also gram.); (fig.) expression of opinion (tr./intr.) to call (for attention or ask to come), summons (tr.) to want (to), have a will (to)
vort.o word (written or spoken)
voy.o way, road, track, route (intr.) to travel, voyage
vu you (sing.)
vu.a your(s) (sing.) to wound


Wals Wales
west.o west


ya indeed, truly (used for emphasis)
yar.o year
ye (prep.) at, by (preposition used when no other fits the meaning)
yen here is/are, there is/are (e.g., 'yen la ucelo!')
yes yes
yun.a young (adj.)
yur.o right (legal or moral)
yust.a just, fair, equitable

Basic Grammar of Ido

Click here for BASIC GRAMMAR

Basic English-Ido vocabulary

Click here for ENGLISH-IDO

For introductory information about the grammar and vocabulary of Ido, the following link will take you to HOW IDO WORKS

Alternatively, return to the main page: MAIN PAGE